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تعداد بازدید : 98
12/30/2022

 

An Analysis of Environmental Culture of Esfahan People and Some of its Factors

 

 

 

Mojtaba Shahnoushi * and Azimsh Abdollahi**

*Department of Social Sciencesd | Islamic Azad University| Dehaghan

** Prof. of University of Payam Noor

 

 

Abstract

In this research the environmental culture of Esfahan people ( that is specified by environmental awareness| environmental attitude and  environmental behavior) is studied.The statistical population was all of the Esfahan population above 15 Years old and the statistical sample was 332( with %95 confidence) | the method of sampling was cluster- stratified | the method of research was survey and the tool of data  gathering was questionnaire. We tested 14 hypothesis and measured  the effect of some variable like : sex| age | education| socio- economic status| Marriage  status and… on the environmental culture. The results showed the effect of age| education| the place of birth| socio – economic status and environmental awareness on the culture of environment in Esfahan

Key words: environment| culture| environmental behavior|attitude|cultural  awareness| nature



Introduction

The social order consists of human interactions and behaviors that is formed in a common environment. Hence individually or as a group| people respect their environment.

But for a long time for the sake of development and technological advancement| human has converted his interaction towards nature in a conflicting manner while human is being overpowered.

This concern regarding the environment and the human – nature ties has its deep roots in human thought. The fast changes in industrial world and urban developments at the beginning of the third millennium is of a specific significance and priority.

Before 1980 the thinkers and programmers of development focused their emphasis on the economic scope (dimension) of development the result of which was unstable development and environmental destruction specially among poor and underdeveloped countries. Since then stability in development or said otherwise ecologically-green| pro-nature| development which includes preservation of environment| become an important article on the think thanks agenda.

The scope of this kind of development includes environment| economic| social| cultural even political aspects| interrelation of which constitutes the proper development process. Each of these dimensions are essential to the process. While the cultural aspect is the foremost.

The cultural preview| opinion changes| values| challenges| habitual course and behaviors require special consideration in this regard. The first step in changing the mentioned cultural categories is to recognize the current events and to realize our cultural stance.

This study has tried to describe the environmental culture aspects of Isfahan such as: Populations’ awareness regarding the issue| their insight regarding the factors involved and their attitude about their surroundings.

 

Statement of the problem

Today| the environmental issues are one of the hottest on scientific and political agendas. The big risk that human faces today is the environmental imbalance between human and nature| if continued at this pace| non existence of human| is obvious.

Global population growth is considered to be the main cause of this imbalance. The UN statistics office has foreed a global population of 8|909|000|000 by 2050. Improper and uncontrolled rush of this human influx to natural resources will cause an extensive environmental problem globally| “99 percent of all natural resources known to men from its existence on earth are extinct today”. (Ben Sen| 161| 2003). “Nowadays| because of diversified human conduct 140 species| per day amounting to 50000 kinds are ruined annually” as well as “Almost ¾ of pollutants flow into the worlds oceans”| an outcome of human conduct on earth. Also “about 1/3 of oceanic pollution is caused by air”| “today| polluted water causes at least 25 thousand  deaths annually” (Sedough 36 : 2001). “About half of the world’s population consumes fossil fuels (wood| manure| plant residues like straw) for cooking and heating” (Dekoning| 1985).

“With each hamburger that we consume there is at least 100 gr. of waste material involved which is hardly replaced in the environment” (Jam – Jam| 13:2004). “The waste yield in Tehran is 7000 tons per day” (Jam – Jam| 5:2004).“Carbon dioxide yield in Isfahan has increased 35 times in the last half century” (Ebtekar| 130:1991).

All of this figures indicate the dangers that the environment faces due to improper utilization of resources by human. To prevail the existing trend| we must change our attitudes and behavior concerning environment.   

Environmental culture includes awareness| insight and conduct. This study is aimed to determine  these components while introducing the issue to the people of Isfahan as a sample for better planning| since this city| because of its historic| social and industrial characteristics constitutes a good sample for the whole  country.

 

The procedure

The procedure of this study is based on library research and survey. Since in one hand|this study is of entra-field type (socio-ecological)| a vast library research on ethnological issue was conducted in order to increase the researcher’s knowledge about this study. On the other hand| the social nature of this study motivated the figurative aspect of it.

Having in mind that the main objective of this study in the first phase is the “acknowledgement” while the analytic aspect is secondary| the study type is descriptive and has a unique time period (2004); thus| the procedure applied can be considered as localized. Because the main variables under study (i-e: awareness| insight| conduct or the environmental culture as a whole) are related to certain independent aspects (i-e: age| gender| etc.)| some statistical trials have been applied in order to examine the hypothesized relation among them.

 

The Surroundings and the environmental culture

The term environment is interpreted as: in it semantic content (Arian pour Kashani| 332:1987)| total of external conditions and their effect on life and evolution of beings (Banan|3:1972)| amplitude| influence and effect on the conditions and situations (Cowre| 202:1978) and alike.

As for the term “subsistence”| the interpretations such as: the necessities for ones existence like food| money (Cambridge| 463:1997)| life| lifetime and specified number of years (Moalem| 195:1987)| means to survive which support life| earning ones livelihood| living domain and life (Arian pour|1078:1987)| existence| being (Cambridge|878: 1997) in addition to the above definitions  similar definitions are being used in dictionaries.

Therefore the expression "environment" is composed of the definitions such as “surrounding” and “subsistence” hence we can say that the term in its domestic and semantic content surrounds human and his domain.

Generally speaking the sum of awareness| insight and conduct of people in connection with their surroundings constitutes environmental culture.

The environmental manifest is of three: natural (encompassing that which is not made by man)| artificial (encompassing that which is made by man)| and social (encompassing the society and what constitutes it).

 

Polluted environment and its polluting sources

 Environmental pollution| if not treated properly| can threaten and endanger human life. This issue has become an axiom which needs a thorough deliberation at international and regional level.

Based on the presented definitions| environmental pollution consists of “any kind of change in the components which constitute our surroundings in a manner where the previous utilization becomes impossible and  these changes endangers life| directly or indirectly” (Dabiri| 11:1996) and yet another definition “undesirable changes in physical | chemical and biological properties of  air| water and earth” (Miller|11/;1998). Obviously these changes put the health| eternity and the function of mankind with other living organisms at risk.

Biologically there are two groups of pollutants:

1- Decaying (Decomposable) : which can be broken down| reused or completely destroyed.

There exists advanced delayed decay patterns:

a-      Advanced decay occurs on human| animal and plant waste|

b-      Delayed decay occurs on radioactive and DDT elements where they are either dispersed or completely nullified.

2- Non-decaying: which can not be decomposed by natural means such as mercury| lead| some of their alloys and some of plastics.

“Both decaying and non decaying elements| should be kept away from air| water and soil to reduce environmental damage” (Miller|12|13:1998) It should be mentioned that environmental pollution consists of categories such as air| water| soil| sound| chemical| nuclear and| thermal pollutants.

 

 

The essence of environmental issue: global consideration| the record

Plato was the first who pursued and perceived the essence of diversified ecology: that is| the principle of: the more diversity in abundance | the better the world.

It is believed that according to Plato the reason of decadence of Greece was the annihilation of the forest and jungles| which caused soil erosion and reduction in safe and secure water flow (Dasman|152:1935).

The first reaction towards the damages inflicted on our inherited nature was observed among the nature lovers| hunters| athletics| hikers and artists (Sharieh|255:1994).

A new movement began to evolve in different parts of the world where the damage was feasible. United States of America was one of this parts in the world in 19th century.

People become aware of such environmental changes when they noticed the erosion of natural habitat caused by advanced transportation and communicational systems. Sudden annihilation of  buffalo herds| dense forests| which seemed endless| draughts and tornadoes| made people realize the value of their natural resources; then| people began to support any political movement which was subject to environmental revival. The term “conservation” with its real meaning was implied and government officials who where in charge of natural resource management become more aware (Dasman 150:1976).

Of course the technology vs. environment proposal had some prior background.

After WW2 rapid technical advances began to threaten the environment in different ways.

In 1960s the importance of the issue brought about a few factors (specially emotional) as follows:

1-      The Atomic radiation and its effects on nature in general|

2-      The consumption of decomposable  agricultural plague/pest repellants| which are declared as being a threat to nature|

3-      The frightening series of stories by Rachel Carson| specially the famous Silent Spring which shocked the public|

4-      The news about the urinate of the biggest lake of U.S.| lake Erie provoked the environmentalists anger.

Fransis Sandbach| the author of “The rise and fall of technological and environmental crisis discussed”| believes that since (1972) the pessimism regarding environmental issues tled and the heat cooled off. Many of the international| national| academic and research organizations which were established to study the environmental phenomenon were either closed or limited in their functions. Said otherwise| the issue had lost its essence.

During 1970 a conservative interpretation of the issue and a logical approach replaced the previous extremist views.

The public pressure in industrial countries made the governments to act upon the environmental issues. People asked for better policies and appointment of knowledgeable ministers since pollution does not recognize any boundaries. The issue was being discussed at international level(The UN   conference in Stockholm in 1977 was a grate phenomenon) (King|46:1998). At the beginning of 1990| the whole biophysical resources spectrum was subject to subsistence relief and an stable| universal and positive development became a global objective.(Mirab|39:1997). UN arranged the earth conference in RiodeGenaro in 1992. the UNCED (UN Conference for Environmental Development) was the title which revealed the instability between Environment and development and found that social| economical environmental principle have close relation| and effect on one another. Now we can say that preserving the environment is one of the greatest issues occupying the minds of decision makers in this century.

 

The essence of Environmental issue’s considered in Iran| the record   

In the book “The municipal regulations” of old Iran we read “… and the city servant should make the shop keepers to sweep their domain and keep the market place free of all injurious waste … and prevent slaughter in butcher shops since the pavement will be covered by blood| ‘Which is detrimental to public heath and hygiene … and if these regulation are not observed the city servant will be punished.” (Taghi Zadeh| cited from Ghoreyshi| 15 and 121:1997).

In reference to environmental preservation| the problem of environmental destruction and exploration on natural resources in our country has not been any different from others in the world. The environmental preservation in Iran began in 1956 when an independent organization called “Hunters Society” was established in order to control hunting| preserve game and prey generations while supervising the related regulations.

In 1967 after the hunting and fishing decree was ratified| the “Hunting and Fishing supervision office” replaced “Hunters Society” and according to article 6 of the above decree the scope of work went beyond the limits of supervision ution. Now it includes research on and study of wildlife| nurturing the wild animals through habitat protection| up wild animal parks and zoology.

In 1971| again the above mentioned office become “Environmental Preservation Management” and high consuls of the previous office were named “High consuls of environmental preservation” with more responsibility towards the prevention of damaging causes which disturb the natures balance.

In 1974| following the Stockholm conferences ratification of preservation and enhancement of environment with 21 articles| the above mentioned management was equipped with new regulations to cover new dimensions with proper programming and schedules (http: www.irnadoe.org).

After Islamic Revolution| according to Dr. Ebtekar who had managed the organization for years| unfortunately at the beginning the statesmen did not grasp the essence of environmental preservation (Ebtekar|27:1997). But the official follow up of the issue produced the article 50 in Iran’s 1979 constitution. In fact this article has addressed the issue 12 years prior to Rio conference (Ebtekar|29:1997).

Today we can claim that Iran is among the countries who have environmental regulations. No country has accredited an article in this regard in its constitution. (Ebtekar|74:2001).                  

 

The speculative frame work and investigative hypothesis.

This study is focused on determining the characteristics of environmental culture of Isfahan and its effective factors. Accordingly we have studied and assessed resources that can provide data and opinions on the subject. The acquired hypothesis can help us to identify and assess the influencing factors. Therefore| some hypothetical sources have been investigated| studied and assessed| while we have had some investigative interviews prior to the research.

 

Why do people think differently about preserving the environment ?

A – Environmental Awareness

“Lack of  knowledge “ is the most important factor. It is obvious that the risk facing the environment is caused by human conduct| and experts believe that the reason is concealed in peoples ignorant rather them their resourcefulness (Radford 178:2002). It should be added that some research have been conducted in this regard| too.

 

“Recognition of environmental awareness| insight and behavior among U.S students”.

A study was conducted by state university of New Mexico in 2003 in order to assess the public opinion on the issue. The objective was to find out what the residents thought and whether consent existed among them? (www.amsu|edu).

 

Environment| according to European view”

An extended research with the above mentioned title was conducted in 2004. The core question focused on the opinion they had| with all their diversified citizenships (different countries)| about the main causes of environmental pollution. (www.europa.eu)

 

“Environmental insight assessed

An extended research about environmental insight and behavior was conducted in Scotland in 2002. on a sample of 4000 people. The project was uted by the commission of  Natural Heritage and Forestry of Scotland and a vast data was published. Check (www.scotland.gov.uk) for more detailed information.

In Iran we have conducted many studies regarding environmental and ecological issues but not on the socio- cultural aspect of it. Studies like the one at hand are few and the following is a sample:

- “Elementary school teacher’s occupied in different regions of the capital city| Tehran: awareness about environmental issues and its promotion methods assessed”

 Badkoohi et al(2000) conducted the mentioned research in the year 2000. This is a field research and the study is of localized description nature. The findings briefly are: the number of aware men is more than woman; almost half of the responders had BA or BS| that means a direct relation between educational status and awareness; respondents in experimental fields had a higher level of awareness compared to other fields.

The common insight of the teachers regarding the issue was almost positive with a hope for future improvement; they found that lack of knowledge and information constitutes the problem we face today (Badkoohi|36-40:2000).

The following hypothesis have emerged from the above studies:

Hypothesis (1 that the level of citizens’ awareness about environment differs

Hypothesis (1-1) that the more aware the citizens’ the more positive their insights about environment.

Hypothesis. (1-2) that  the more aware the citizens’ the more desirable their behavior about environment

Hypothesis. (1-3) that the more  positive the citizens’ insight the more desirable their behavior about environment.

According to experimental studies conducted previously| it seems that any educational system which does not follow environmental awareness such as official education creates more insensitivity among people regarding the environment. So the relation between the variable education and educational field are assessed subject to environmental culture issue.

 

Hypothesis 4 : there is a significant relation between educational status and environmental culture.    

B –Being close to nature

Kay Millton| the famous anthropologist| suggests: Refer to any holograph of renown and influential environmentalists| most probably you will find their closeness to nature at least at the beginning of their career. Millton has many testimonies to prove his suggestion and the most important among them are the results of a study by Palmer at the beginning of 1990s conducted on environmental educators of England. They were asked to write about their lives and describe the influencing factors which helped their commitments and concerns to improve the environment.

Findings showed  that 42 percent of respondents expressed their childhood experiences in the outdoors| countryside| suburbs and open spaces. 49 percent had a direct contact with nature not necessarily in childhood| which has influenced the shaping of their insight.

Similar studies have been conducted in other countries and the results indicate that the childhood experiences in the nature are vital in shaping the positive environmental insight.

The above mentioned issues made us to apply the “close to nature” variable when we consider peoples environmental insight and conduct.

 

Hypothesis 10: There is a significant relation between being close to nature and environmental conduct of people.

 The childhood experiences| the experiences resulting from living in natural and open surroundings| the birth place are accounted for to be assessed while by another hypothesis we have examined the relationship between the birth place and environmental culture.

 

Hypothesis 6: there exists a significant relation between birth place and environmental culture.

 

 

Eco-feminism and environment

Eco-feminism is a branch of feminism concerned with environment which highlights the feminine gender in society and environment (a negative view) (Beruy|161:2001).

Different branches of eco-feminism such as spiritual believes| idealism and their resistance (something not discussed in this study) each present their own specific analysis in relation to feminine suppression and environmental decadence. Among these different types of eco-feminism| the common element is the relation between this gender and the environment. Based on the fact that naturally women are closer to nature than men| we came up with the hypothesis based on the gender relation and environmental culture.

 

Hypothesis 2 : There exists a significant relation between gender and environment culture.

C – The genetic epistemology and environment| theory

- This theory was introduced by Piaje et al. Based on this theory the power to conceive and moral commitment differs in age groupings and it evolves gradually as time passes (Sharifi 25:1990). The younger the population the less the moral commitment regarding common problems| (In its surface the environmental issue is considered a common problem| hence individual gain is minimal) which means lack of common sense and immature conceivability. This breeds carelessness about environment| and it is hoped to cure itself with age growth and change of pattern.

Another hypothesis has evolved based on the above reasoning which will examine the relation between age and environmental conduct and insight.

 

Hypothesis 3: There exists a significant relation between age and environmental culture.

 

D - Being environmental and native

According to exploratory researches which was conducted prior to the study in addition to interviews we found that native Isfahanians adore their city and are apt to preserve their cultural and natural heritage.

Hence another hypothesis by which the relation between being native and environmentally aware can be examined| was designed.

 

Hypothesis 7: There is a significant relation between being indigenous and the environmental culture.

 

E – Social strata and environmental issues

Every society is made of different economic| social and cultural ranks. The insight about common issues| naturally| can not be alike among these ranks. The lower ranks due to situational discontent do not care about social issues such as environmental; more over in some case their insight is negative. This careless and negative mentality sometimes causes damages to the public facilities and common resources.

The exploratory research showed that the reason for this discontent which harms the social issues is the idea which the lower rank of the society believes that the natural resources| public facilities| specially the environment belong to the higher social ranks.Therefore| it seems that the social environment regarding environmental issues are not grasped the social ranks of a given society at the same level.Yet| another hypothesis to be assessed and evaluated can be designed as follow:

Hypothesis 9: There is a significant relation between social ranks and the environmental issues.

 

F . Profession and environmental issues  

Since profession is a major factor in evaluating things| generating ideas and choices among people| while generate uniform thinking patterns among trade unions and guilds| we thought a relation could be found in this area.Now the hypothesis:      

 Hypothesis 8: There exists a significant relation between occupational categories and environmental culture.

 

 statistical analysis

The statistical population is from 12 regions of the city consist of  people aged 15 and above. According to the Management and Planning office of Isfahan| the total population of the city amounted to 1|479|735 in 2002.

Utilizing the kokran formula sample| the capacity equaled 322 persons. For better accuracy we have increased it to 400. We selected 4 regions out of 12 in the city: 3|6|7 and 9. Based on regional population random sampling was conducted. A questionnaire with 34 question was the testing tool.

 

 

 

Prioritization

The essential variables of this study and related indicators are presented in the following table of priorities:   

 


 

Variable

 

Prioritization

 

Social- economic base

1- Economical state:

- income level

- residence

- residence state

- Type and model of the car

1- Living facilities

2- Occupation

3- Education

Environmental awareness

1- Informed about types of pollutants

2- Informed about environmental characteristics

3- Informed about types of composed and decomposed matters

Environmental insight

1- opinionated about deforestation and damages caused to the surroundings

2- opinionated about the effects of pollution

3- opinionated about the population attitude regarding nature

Environment conduct

Measures taken regarding nature

Environmental culture

Total points from awareness| insight and conduct

Findings:

Hypothesis 1 : The environmental awareness  differs among citizens.

 

Environmental awareness

Sufficiency anticipated

Sufficiency observed

Low

133.3

87

Medium

133.3

274

High

133.3

39

Total

400

400

 

= 231.24                df = 2                          sig = 0/000

As for its significance| the obtained (0/000) from one dimensional key 2 test with 2 degrees of  freedom| the environmental  awareness of  participant vary| hence the hypothesis is accepted.

 

Hypothesis 2 : There exists a significant relation between gender and environmental culture of the citizens.

 

Gender

Environment Culture

Total

Low

Medium

High

Woman

60

140

10

210

Man

43

137

10

190

Total

103

277

20

400

 

= 1.84                    df = 2                          sig = 0/39


As for its significance level of (0/39) obtained from key 2 test with 2 degrees of freedom| there is no relation between gender and environmental culture among the participants.

This hypothesis was examined by t-test on two independent groups. The means obtained on environmental culture of woman was 1.76 and 1.82 for men. As can be observed| the above table does not indicate a significant difference in this regard. The significance level of (0.21) obtained by t also shows lack of relation between to variable| thus this hypothesis is rejected.


 

Gender

Environmental Culture mean grade

Woman

1.76

Men

1.82

Mean total

1.79

 

t = -1.25                      df = 398                                  sig = 0/21

 


Hypothesis 3 : Thee is a significant relation between age and environmental culture.

The correlation of these two variables is evaluated by Person’s coefficient. The obtained are value R (0.138) and its significance (0-006) shows a direct relation between these two variables| the age growth and environmental culture. Therefore the hypothesis is accepted.


                                               

R = 0.138                                sig = 0-006

 

Hypothesis 4: There is a significant relation between education and environmental culture of citizens.   

Educational level

Environmental Culture

 

Total

Low

Medium

High

Illiterate

3

2

0

5

Elementary

8

16

3

27

Guidance

24

29

0

53

High school

37

101

2

140

Post graduate

21

54

3

78

BA – BS

10

63

8

81

MS

0

11

4

15

Ph.D.

0

11

0

1

Total

103

277

20

400

 

= 50.62                                          sig = 0/000

 


Based on the findings and significance level of (0/000) obtained from Key two test with a df=14| there exists a significant relation between educational level and the environmental culture of citizens.

We have also conducted an  analytical variance test for evaluation of mentioned hypothesis.

 

 


 

 

 

Educational level

Environmental Culture mean grade 

Illiterate

1.40

Elementary

1.54

Guidance

1.75

High school

1.67

Post graduate

1.97

BA – BS

2.26

MS

2.00

Ph.D.

 

Mean Total

1.79

 

f = 6.10                                               sig = 0/000


As shown above| there is a direct relation between level of education  and the grades obtained in the subject of environmental culture. The significant level of t test (0/000) proves this relation| so the hypothesis is accepted.


 

Educational level

Mean

Undecided

1.61

Humanities sciences

1.85

Basic sciences

1.69

Technical – Engineering

1.95

Health – Medicine

1.88

Art

2

 

f = 5.62                                               sig = 0.000

 


As can be seen the means vary according to educational disciplines. The significant level obtained by F test (0/000) indicates the relation between educational discipline and the environmental culture of citizens| therefore the assumption zero is verified and the hypothesis is accepted.

 

Hypothesis 6 : There exists a significant relation between the birthplace and environmental culture.


 

Birthplace

Environmental culture

Total

Low

Medium

High

Country  side

City

Province center

6

29

68

8

35

230

0

3

17

14

71

315

Total

 

 

 

400

 

= 13.92                  df = 4                                      sig = 0.008

 


Based on the finding in next table and significant level of (0.008) obtained by  kay two test with df=4| there exists a significant relation between birthplace and environmental culture. We have also conducted an analytical variance test for evaluation of said hypothesis

 


 

 

Birthplace

Mean

Country

City

Province center

1.57

1.63

1.83

Mean total

1.74

 

. f = 6.04                                             sig = 0.03

 


As can be noticed| the mean of province center dweller is the highest compared to first the city and then the country dweller.

Considering the level of significant obtained from F test (0/003)| the significant relation between the independent and dependent variables| is confirmed by this hypothesis.

 

Hypothesis 7 : There is a significant relation between being non indigenous or indigenous and environmental culture.

 


Being indigenous

 Or

 non indigenous

Environmental culture

Total

Low

Medium

High

Indigenous

46

83

5

134

non indigenous

57

194

15

266

Total

103

277

20

400

 

= 7.96                    df = 2              sig = 0.019

 


A level of significant obtained form kay two (19%) exists between the two variables| above.

This hypothesis is also evaluated by t – test for both independent groups.


 

Being indigenous or non indigenous

mean

Indigenous

1.69

Non indigenous

1.84

Mean total

1.79

 

t = 2.73                        df = 398                      sig = 0.006

 


We notice that the mean of indigenous citizens of Isfahan 1.69 is lower than non indigenous population of the same city| 1.84.

Thus| based on t test| the (0.006) significant level also shows a significant relation in this regards and this hypothesis is accepted as well.

 

Hypothesis 8 :  there exists a significant relation between occupational categories and environmental culture.


 

 

 

 

 

Occupational category

Environmental culture

Total

Low

Medium

High

Unemployed

59

161

14

232

Service oriented

low level

16

35

0

51

Staff | low level

16

55

3

74

Entrepreneur low level

9

9

2

20

Senior staff and

high level entrepreneurship

3

17

3

23

Total

103

277

20

400

 

= 14.16                 df = 8                          sig = 0.078

 


According to the findings and the significant level of (0/078) obtained by kay 2 test with df=8| there showed now significant relation between occupational category and environmental culture. An analytical test was conducted to evaluate this hypothesis.


 

Occupational category

Mean

Unemployed

 

Service oriented

low level

 

Staff | low level

 

Entrepreneur low level

 

Senior staff and

high level entrepreneurship

 

Mean total

1.79

 

f = 8                                        sig = 0.101

 


As can be seen the significant level of (0.101) obtained from F test also verifies the non existence of the relation. So| this hypothesis is not accepted.

 

Hypothesis 9 : There exists a significant relation among social ranks and environmental culture.

This hypothesis is evaluated by correlative coefficient of the variables: The social rank and environmental culture. The obtained value of R is 0.103 and its significant level is 0.039. This shows a direct relation between rank promotion and appreciation of environmental culture.


                                   

R = 0.103                                sig = 0.039

 


Hypothesis 10 : There exists a significant relation between being close to nature and conducts regarding environmental issues.


 

 

 

Being close to nature

Conducts regarding the environment

Total

Low

Medium

High

Partly

41

36

1

78

Moderate

53

57

4

114

Grate

46

117

45

208

Total

140

210

50

400

 

= 51.44                  df = 4                          sig = 0/000

 


The level of significant 0.000 considered| which is obtained by kay two test with 4 degree freedom a strong relation exists among people who are close to nature. 

The evaluation has been conducted through Pierson’s correlation coefficient and the outcome indicates a direct significant relation between the two variables where R=0.33 and the level of significant of 0.000. this hypothesis is also accepted.


                        R = 0.33                                  sig = 0.000

 


Hypothesis 11 : The more awareness about environment among citizens| the more positive their insight . With the assessment procedure here is like the one above. With    R = 0.161  and   level of significant   0.001

A direct relation is observed here also| which corresponds with the hypothesis pretense. This hypothesis is verified.


                                    R = 0.161                                sig = 0.001

 


Hypothesis 12 : The more awareness about environment among citizens| the more sought environmental conduct.

This hypothesis is evaluated by Pierson’s correlation coefficient| where  R= 0.131 and thd level of significant relation is 0.009. This shows a direct significant relation between the two variables| which means that hypothesis is accepted.


                                    R = 0.131                                sig = 0.009

 


Hypothesis 13 : The more positive environmental insight among citizens| the more sought environmental conduct.

The procedure applied here is also Peterson’s.

R = 0.338 and level of significant of 0.000 show a direct significant relation between the two variables and reflect the purpose of the hypothesis. Here we have another approved hypothesis.


                                    R = 0.0338                              sig = 0.000     

 

 

 

 

(The regrational analysis of dependent and independent variable| stepwise)

Independents variable

B

Sig

Being close to nature

0.177

0.000

Educational level

0.108

0.000

Birth place

0.163

0.001

Age

0.064

0.017

 


Based on the findings the final model is represented as follows:

 

In addition to the hypothesis| the gender relation by the dimensions of (prioritization) that constitute the environmental culture was evaluated by the researchers. Only the later variable showed an acceptable level of significance where men have a more fair attitude towards environment then woman.

Environmental culture = 0.301 + 0.117 (being close to nature) + 0.108 (education) + 0.163 (birth place) + 0.064 (age)


 


Conclusion

The preliminary objective of this study was to study  recognition of awareness| insights and the conduct of  Isfahanians regarding the environment under the environmental culture title.

In this research different view points| individual and social have been evaluated and assessed for the purpose of recognizing the issue. The issue being their effective conduct and behavior in connection with the environment that surrounds them.

This study was designed based on the hypothesis introduced by the above mentioned actualities. The results produced from hypothesis| evaluations are presented as follows.

The focus of the first hypothesis was on people’s environmental awareness which found that there is no uniform awareness among people. It is worth mentioning that the questions were designed based on ordinary and simple matters which are feasible among majority of the people. However the majority had a medium awareness and the rate of high awareness was low.

The concern of second hypothesis was the gender.

As mentioned before this hypothesis was based on eco-feminist ideas the core of which is a close relation between women and nature. The results showed there is no feasible different between men and women in reference to environmental culture.      


 


The third hypothesis examined the relation between age and environmental culture among the citizens of the assigned city| where a strong significant relation was found between age growth and environmental culture. With age growth the appreciation of environmental culture is improved as well. Although the minimum age for participants was 15| unfortunately the issue which is a contemporary matter worldwide did not interest the teenagers.       

This phenomenon calls for a serious planning in order to begin educating the young generation from early age. It can be said that as the thought matures the perception about the issue become more important| in our case the environment; therefore it is essential to try to cultivate this issue at very early stages of growth.

The fourth hypothesis was concerned with educational level and the issue at hand| where we saw that when level of education increases| the level of awareness will increase| in this case regarding environment.

The fifth hypothesis examined the environmental culture vs. the field study that the respondents had majored in. People majoring in art had a better understanding of the subject and scored more while the findings showed significant relation.

A significant relation was found when the birthplace became one of the variables in the test| in the sixth hypothesis.

Amazingly| being non indigenous toped the score vs. indigenous| somehow the non indigenous had a better grasp on the environmental culture compared to indigenous Isfahanins. Here again a significant relation exists. Examining the type of occupation vs. environmental culture produced a non significant relation.

Ninth hypothesis had to do with the socio-economic status of the participants and their conception of environmental culture. This produced a significant relation between the two variable. The higher the social-economic ranking| the more respect toward the environmental issues. Many scholars point out  that the reason of environmental destruction can be found in poverty and  overpopulation. This must be cured from the base up by proper education.

Being close to nature is another aspect that we examined in this study. The relation was direct| effective and significant.

The relation among the compound dimensions of environmental culture (awareness| insight| conduct) were examined in a framework of three hypothesis. The findings between the variables were significant. The results emphasized on the importance of informative and educating means regarding environmental culture (something that the majority are in contact with on daily bases and which can have a constructive role in future planning and development).

Regressive analysis of multivariable factors influencing the environmental culture was conducted that showed education| birthplace and age are effective in understanding the environmental culture.

Making citizens| children and the youth nature – friendly can produce effective procedures in promoting environmental culture. This is a different issue to be discussed separately and beyond the scope of this study .               


 

      

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http:// www.iucn.org

 

 

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http:// www.irangreenpen.com

 


 

 

 

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